The Open Gate Phenomenon
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            This website was launched to disseminate information about this discovery to the worldwide community.
            It provides an an opening for scientists and innovators to pursue and develop opportunities to expedite 
             the benefits of this discovery. We are here to encourage and provide assistance toward
 the commercial development of the Open Gate Phenomenon.


The Open Gate Phenomenon is a unique solid-state electron conduction mechanism that results in a significant and sustained negative charge (electron) transfer from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles formed on its surface —metal particles that are grown from the semiconductor substrate itself.  It is a naturally occurring phenomenon in specially prepared materials, first identified in reduced polycrystalline titania (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII metal particles.  The Schottky barrier height of this unique interface is sufficiently lowered to facilitate electron flow into the metal particles due to the difference in work function between the semiconductor substrate and the metal.  The result is a negative charge on the metal particles resulting from a unique interface formed during the material’s preparation.  The magnitude of the electron flow to the metal particles is sufficient and durable enough to provide cathodic protection of the metal particles from surface oxidation during air exposure.  The interface acts as a one-way open gate — it is a rectifying “open gate.” In essence, the metal particles behave as a negative electrode. The significance of the Open Gate Phenomenon is that is not limited to mono-layer surface coverage, nano-sized particles, single crystal surfaces, or even in-situ high vacuum material preparation and storage. It is naturally occurring and as such, may be adaptable to other mixed-oxide, ceramic materials systems.  The materials themselves as mixed oxide ceramics lend themselves to a multitude of applications in many different areas.

The Open Gate Phenomenon was accidentally discovered thirty years ago. Unfortunately, not only was it initially misunderstood, but its investigation was outside the realm of the research and budgetary interests of the research facility. Without support interest eventually waned and the discovery went unreported. However, scientific curiosity of one of the researchers remained and now additional research has begun to elucidate the mechanism. The full significance of this discovery is now being realized.



           Do not follow where the path may lead.  Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.
                                                                  Ralph Waldo Emerson